ikd-Tree: An Incremental K-D Tree for Robotic Applications

22 Feb 2021  ·  Yixi Cai, Wei Xu, Fu Zhang ·

This paper proposes an efficient data structure, ikd-Tree, for dynamic space partition. The ikd-Tree incrementally updates a k-d tree with new coming points only, leading to much lower computation time than existing static k-d trees... Besides point-wise operations, the ikd-Tree supports several features such as box-wise operations and down-sampling that are practically useful in robotic applications. In parallel to the incremental operations (i.e., insert, re-insert, and delete), ikd-Tree actively monitors the tree structure and partially re-balances the tree, which enables efficient nearest point search in later stages. The ikd-Tree is carefully engineered and supports multi-thread parallel computing to maximize the overall efficiency. We validate the ikd-Tree in both theory and practical experiments. On theory level, a complete time complexity analysis is presented to prove the high efficiency. On experiment level, the ikd-Tree is tested on both randomized datasets and real-world LiDAR point data in LiDAR-inertial odometry and mapping application. In all tests, ikd-Tree consumes only 4% of the running time in a static k-d tree. read more

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