# From Symmetry to Asymmetry: Generalizing TSP Approximations by Parametrization

We generalize the tree doubling and Christofides algorithm, the two most common approximations for TSP, to parameterized approximations for ATSP. The parameters we consider for the respective parameterizations are upper bounded by the number of asymmetric distances in the given instance, which yields algorithms to efficiently compute constant factor approximations also for moderately asymmetric TSP instances. As generalization of the Christofides algorithm, we derive a parameterized 2.5-approximation, where the parameter is the size of a vertex cover for the subgraph induced by the asymmetric edges. Our generalization of the tree doubling algorithm gives a parameterized 3-approximation, where the parameter is the number of asymmetric edges in a given minimum spanning arborescence. Both algorithms are also stated in the form of additive lossy kernelizations, which allows to combine them with known polynomial time approximations for ATSP. Further, we combine them with a notion of symmetry relaxation which allows to trade approximation guarantee for runtime. We complement our results by experimental evaluations, which show that both algorithms give a ratio well below 2 and that the parameterized 3-approximation frequently outperforms the parameterized 2.5-approximation with respect to parameter size.

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