Filter-adapted spatiotemporal sampling for real-time rendering

23 Oct 2023  ·  William Donnelly, Alan Wolfe, Judith Bütepage, Jon Valdés ·

Stochastic sampling techniques are ubiquitous in real-time rendering, where performance constraints force the use of low sample counts, leading to noisy intermediate results. To remove this noise, the post-processing step of temporal and spatial denoising is an integral part of the real-time graphics pipeline. The main insight presented in this paper is that we can optimize the samples used in stochastic sampling such that the post-processing error is minimized. The core of our method is an analytical loss function which measures post-filtering error for a class of integrands - multidimensional Heaviside functions. These integrands are an approximation of the discontinuous functions commonly found in rendering. Our analysis applies to arbitrary spatial and spatiotemporal filters, scalar and vector sample values, and uniform and non-uniform probability distributions. We show that the spectrum of Monte Carlo noise resulting from our sampling method is adapted to the shape of the filter, resulting in less noisy final images. We demonstrate improvements over state-of-the-art sampling methods in three representative rendering tasks: ambient occlusion, volumetric ray-marching, and color image dithering. Common use noise textures, and noise generation code is available at

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