Combining GHOST and Casper

6 Mar 2020  ·  Vitalik Buterin, Diego Hernandez, Thor Kamphefner, Khiem Pham, Zhi Qiao, Danny Ryan, Juhyeok Sin, Ying Wang, Yan X Zhang ·

We present "Gasper," a proof-of-stake-based consensus protocol, which is an idealized version of the proposed Ethereum 2.0 beacon chain. The protocol combines Casper FFG, a finality tool, with LMD GHOST, a fork-choice rule. We prove safety, plausible liveness, and probabilistic liveness under different sets of assumptions.

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