A Random Finite Set Approach for Dynamic Occupancy Grid Maps with Real-Time Application

10 Sep 2016  ·  Nuss Dominik, Reuter Stephan, Thom Markus, Yuan Ting, Krehl Gunther, Maile Michael, Gern Axel, Dietmayer Klaus ·

Grid mapping is a well established approach for environment perception in robotic and automotive applications. Early work suggests estimating the occupancy state of each grid cell in a robot's environment using a Bayesian filter to recursively combine new measurements with the current posterior state estimate of each grid cell... This filter is often referred to as binary Bayes filter (BBF). A basic assumption of classical occupancy grid maps is a stationary environment. Recent publications describe bottom-up approaches using particles to represent the dynamic state of a grid cell and outline prediction-update recursions in a heuristic manner. This paper defines the state of multiple grid cells as a random finite set, which allows to model the environment as a stochastic, dynamic system with multiple obstacles, observed by a stochastic measurement system. It motivates an original filter called the probability hypothesis density / multi-instance Bernoulli (PHD/MIB) filter in a top-down manner. The paper presents a real-time application serving as a fusion layer for laser and radar sensor data and describes in detail a highly efficient parallel particle filter implementation. A quantitative evaluation shows that parameters of the stochastic process model affect the filter results as theoretically expected and that appropriate process and observation models provide consistent state estimation results. read more

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